The Ancient Egyptians believed in the afterlife, but in order to enjoy it to the full there were certain preparations which had to be made. The body of the deceased had to be preserved, wrapped in bandages and then encased in a series of coffins decorated with hieroglyphic inscriptions, often spells or invocations to the gods to protect the occupant and guide them safely to the afterlife. This design is copied from the cartonnage coffin of a priest named Nespernub, and dates from the 22nd dynasty, c.800 BC. The four sons of Horus wait at the top to guard the internal organs, and below are the goddesses Isis and Nepthys with wings outstretched. On the breast the scarab beetle of the sun god Re has been combined with the wings of Horus and holds Nespernub in a protective embrace.